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Salvia - Sage
 

Salvia is the largest genus in the family Lamiaceae, with roughly 1000  species native to Eurasia and America. There are three distinct distribution areas, Central- and South-America, Central-Asia and the Mediterranean and E-Asia. Most species need a warmer climate than Iceland has to offer, but at least two species are hardy here. 

 

 
Sanguisorba - Burnet
 

Sanguisorba, is a genus of about 30 species in the rose family, Rosaceae, distributed around northern temperate regions. They are herbaceous plants or shrubs with clusters of small flowers. They grow best in moist soil and a sunny position. 

 

Saponaria - Þvottajurtir
 

Saponaria is a genus in the carnation family, Caryophyllaceae, native to Europe and Asia. The latin name means soapy sap, which refers to the saponin content of the sap, which foams like soap. At least Saponaria ocymoides has been used to make liquid soap by soaking the leaves in water. Most species have white or pink flowers. They grow in different conditions, some are good rock garden plants that need dry, sun baked soil, while others are taller and prefer moist soil. 

 

Saxifraga - Rockfoils
 

Saxifraga is the largest genus of the Saxifragaceae family with roughly 440 species spread around temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. The Latin name means stone breaking which could refer to many species growing in rock crevices at high altitudes. Other species are larger and grow on moist meadows, but most species, even those growing on cliffs, grow where there is some moisture. A few species are native to Iceland.(*)  

Scabiosa - Pincushions
 

Scabiosa is a genus in the Caprifoliaceae family. Their native habitats are dry grasslands and mountainsides, often in calcium rich soil. They can however grow in any garden soil, but thrive best given enough sunshine. 

 

Scutellaria - Scullcaps
 

Scutellaria, is a genus in the family Lamiaceae with a global distribution, mainly in temperate regions. Several species in this genus have been used in herbal medicine.

Sedum - Stonecrop

Sedum, is a large species of close to 600 species in the family Crassulaceae, with a wide distribution around the northern hemisphere. They are herbaceous or shrubby plants with thick, water storing leaves, very drought tolerant and thrive best in sun. 

 

Semiaquilegia - False columbine
 

Semiaquilegia is a small genus in the buttercup family, Ranunculaceae, closely related to columbines (Aquilegia). The difference between them is that false columbines lack the spurs that columbine flowers have. Two species are grown as garden plants, both are native to China. 

 

Senecio - Ragworts
 

Senecio is a large and diverse genus in the Asteraceae family. It is one of the largest genera of flowering plants with over 1200 species with a global distribution. The flowers are usually yellow, but can rarely be white, green, purple or blue. Within the genus are annuals, trees, shrubs, and the horrible weed groundsel (S. vulgaris), which is probably the member of the genus with the widest distribution here in Iceland. It also includes some hardy perennials that make nice garden plants.

 

Sidalcea
 

Sidalcea is a genus in the Malvaceae, family that is native to western N-America. They are tall plants resembling hollyhocks, but are more delicate and hardier here in Iceland. They flower in late summer bearing pink, purple or white flowers.

 

Silene - Catchfly
 

Silene is the largest genus of the carnation family, Caryophyllaceae, with a global distribution, the greatest number of species in the northern hemisphere. They prefer to be on the sunny side of life, many low growing species are excellent rock garden plants. One species is native to Iceland.(*) 

 

Sinopodophyllum
 

The genus Podophyllum in the Berberidaceae family has been split up and now there is only one species left in that genus, Podophyllum peltatum, which is native to N-America. The Sinopodophyllum genus also contains only one species, the Himalayan may apple, Sinopodphyllum hexandrum, which is native to the Himalayans. Other species formerly in the Podophyllum genus have been moved to the genus Dysosoma.

 

Soldanella - Snowbells
 

Soldanella, is a small genus in the primrose family, Primulaceae, native to mountain areas in Europe. They grow in moist meadows, woodlands and rocky mountainsides. 

 

Stachys - Hedgenettles
 

Stachys is one of the largest genera in the Lamiaceae, family with 300-450 species most of which are native to temperate regions. The flowers are born in long flower spikes.  

 

Swertia
 

Swertia is a genus in the gentian family, Gentianaceae. Most are alpine which often grow in wetlands and meadows so they grow best in moist soil. 

 

Symphyandra
 

Symphyandra is a small genus in the bellflower family, Campanulaceae, closely related to bluebells (Campanula). Most are biennial and the majority are native to the Balkan peninsula and W-Asia. 

 

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